Child development at 1 year
Time with a small child flies very quickly. Most recently, the baby was a tiny little ball, unable to raise his head, utter any sounds, or focus his eyes. During the first year, the baby changed dramatically, began to understand a lot, spoke the first words, took the first steps and continues to learn about the world around. Let's learn how to determine whether a child is developing normally, as well as how to stimulate the further development of a one-year-old baby.
- Child by 12 months usually triples the weight with which he was born. Now the pace of weight gain and increase in growth compared with the first half of life is significantly slowed down.
- The feet of a one-year-old child are still flat, and they have no arch. If the baby has just started to walk on its own, there are still fat pads on its feet. As they master walking, they disappear, and a bend appears at the feet.
- The average number of teeth that one year old babies have is 8. In this case, some children may already have 12 teeth, while others - only 1-2 first teeth. These are all variants of the norm that do not require a visit to a doctor. Consult with a pediatrician is necessary only in the absence of teeth in 1 year.
For the twelfth month of life, the baby gains about 350 grams of weight, and its growth is extended by another 1-1.5 centimeters. Both the head circumference and the chest circumference of a child at this age increases by an average of 0.5 cm.
Different children develop physically at different speeds, but on the basis of the indicators of a large number of babies of a certain age category, the specialists set limits to the norms for such indicators. These boundaries, together with the average figures for one year old children, we noted in the table:
1 year average
Boys in 1 year
Girls 1 Year
When hitting pieces of furniture, some parents teach the child to give "change". Should I do this, see the next video of Larisa Sviridova.
What baby can?
- A child of 12 months is moving very actively and a lot. Most karapuzov by the age of one year old already know how to walk independently and constantly improve this skill. Nevertheless, some kids in 1 year still need mother's support while walking or are not in a hurry to start walking, preferring quick movement on all fours.
- Also, a child of one year can already squat and independently rise from this position. Scarce confidently climbs the stairs and climbs onto the sofa.
- In one hand, the baby of one year is able to take 2 small items. The child takes the buttons and other tiny objects with the index and thumb.
- A one-year-old child turns out to collect a pyramid and build towers of cubes.
- The child's speech includes about 10-15 simple words of 1-2 syllables. One word karapuz can have several meanings. Scarce still does not pronounce all the letters and can confuse the syllables in some places.
- A child of 1 year understands the speech of parents. He knows the meaning of the words “can,” “cannot,” “give,” “take,” “come up,” and many others. He also knows the names of people with whom he often speaks. The kid can already answer a simple question.
- A crumb can perform simple tasks for example, wash the vegetables, spread out the cutlery, wipe off the dust.
- Baby likes to hide and search for toys throw toys, build buildings from cubes and destroy them, fill boxes and boxes, and then empty them.
- Twelve-month baby is interested in plot games and knows how to play them. A crumb can put a toy to sleep or feed it.
- Hearing the music, baby will dance and try to sing along.
- Baby knows many animals and can show them both on a walk and in pictures.
- Baby knows way to use different items.
- Long-term memory child develops - the baby is already able to remember the events of a few days ago.
- Child becoming more independent every day. At the table, he is already controlled with a spoon and he is drinking from a cup. The toddler already has certain preferences in food - the crumbs do not like any products at all, and some, on the contrary, the child eats with great pleasure.
To check if the child is developing at a normal pace, you should:
- Evaluate whether a crumb can crawl, stand, hold your hand, and take a few steps with your support.
- Make sure that the baby uses at least one gesture, for example, it turns its head negatively or waves its hand while.
- Check if the child understands your simple requests, for example, take a toy or give it to you.
- Make sure that the child’s speech has at least one meaningful word.
- Check whether the baby has at least one tooth or signs of its appearance in the near future.
If, with such a test, something alerted you, tell the pediatrician about it during a routine examination a year.
Classes for development
- The main skill that a one-year-old child works on is walking. If the baby continues to crawl and is not in a hurry to take the first steps, you can attract the crumbs with your favorite toy. Some kids are afraid of losing their balance, so it can help him start walking the toy in his hands.
- If there is a possibility, give a crumb walk barefoot on the ground, sand or grass.
- To stimulate large motor skills, offer the child play with big cars, balls and other large toys.
- Continue with the baby development of fine motor skills. For example, you can attach clothes pins to the edges of a coffee can and invite your child to take them off. Still interesting and useful for the child are games with beans, grits, sand, water.
- Also continue speech development toddler. Talk a lot with the child so that the baby can learn a lot of new words. Describe everything you do and the items that the baby sees.
- Play along with the toddler, but at the same time allow the baby to do independently what he can. Play together different plots with toys, for example, how a hare shares cookies with a teddy bear, a doll is bathing in a bath, a little mouse invites a teddy bear to visit.
- Include child music of different genres, as well as the sounds of different objects. So you will stimulate the development of hearing.
- Deal with baby by drawing allowing the toddler to draw the first scribbles with finger paints, crayons or felt-tip pens. The baby will also like to create using plasticine and salt dough.
- Walk with the baby in the sandbox offering to play with scoop, molds, sieve, rake.
- On a sunny day, notice the crumbs on your shadows. Offer to step on your shadow.
- Give the child an opportunity play with other kids. If the baby has no sister or brother, invite familiar families with preschoolers to visit.
- Make for baby photo album in which there will be photos of all close relatives, and also pictures of animals. Peanut will be a long time to consider it.
- Take some time every day. reading together with baby. Get for the crumbs children's books with bright illustrations. Let the child choose for himself what book he will “read” today.
- While bathing throw in the tub are small toys that can swim, and then give a crumbs sieve or scoop, suggesting to collect floating objects in a bucket.
Diversify the day with O. Teplyakova, an expert in intellectual development, using the “Little Leonardo” method.
The development of the mental sphere of a one-year-old baby continues to be very intensive. The child is awake longer and is able to concentrate on an interesting game with the mother for several minutes. That is why all developmental activities should be conducted only in the form of a game.
On the basis of communication with the mother at the crumb to the first birthday, trust or distrust of the world that surrounds it is formed. If this experience of communication is positive, the baby will feel safe and will also project positive emotions on the world around.
In the second year of life, the child actively continues sensory and cognitive development. The kid learns the properties of objects, their shape, colors. In games, parents should constantly send one-year-old toddler, because without the help and hints from the outside, the crumbs will remain monotonous. Conducting simple lessons with babies of 1 year, parents help the toddler to compare and distinguish objects, develop memory, and learn everyday skills.
To assess the mental development of the child in 1 year, you can use the following tests:
- Give the kid 2 dice and show how to build a tower. The child will not throw cubes or drag them into his mouth, and put one on another. By 18 months, the baby will already be able to use 3-4 cubes to build a tower.
- Offer a tiny toy in which to embed geometric shapes (frame insert or sorter). One year old baby should put a circle in the hole for him.
- Give karapuzu pyramid, offering to collect it. A kid of 1-1.5 years old will try to string the rings, but at the same time will not take into account their size. Correctly fold the pyramid, taking into account the size of the rings, the children learn only by 2 years of age.
- Assess the availability of skills to use household items. A karapuz 12-15 months old already knows how to properly use a spoon and a cup. At 1.5 years old, a child is able to take off socks, a hat and mittens.
To assess the large motility of the baby, find out if the baby can walk for a long time, learn to bend and squat, and be able to get up from his knees and climb onto the sofa. Exercises that develop major motor skills will include:
- Jumping Hold the toddler under the arms or by the arms and let the crumb jump in place.
- Getting on the sofa and lowering it back to the floor. For this purpose, you can attract toddler favorite toy.
- Climbing Offer a crumble to crawl under a chair, get into a large box and get out of it.
- Step over Having laid out different things on the floor, take a walk around the room with the tot, holding the child by the hand. When the crumb approaches the obstacle, show that you first need to raise one leg and step over the object, and then take the same step with the second foot.
- Ball games. Teach your kid to throw the ball on the floor, first, give the ball to the crumbs in your hands, and then place them nearby so that the child takes the ball. Next, learn to catch the ball. To develop the eye, you can throw the ball in the box.
To develop the fine motor skills of a one year old child, you can:
- Draw with pencils.First, hold the penny pencil and just leave marks on the paper. Try to get your baby interested in painting.
- Paint colors. Give your child a dry brush and show how to leave the brush strokes, and then proceed to mastering painting with paints.
- Sculpt from plasticine. Roll the ball and show the baby how you can make a cake from it, and then invite the toddler to repeat.
- Stick stones, buttons, tubules into plasticine.
- Sculpt from salt dough.
- Stick stickers on yourself or on a piece of paper.
- Paint with finger paints.
- Play with lacing.
- Sew on a ball.
- Play with water, grits or sand using a sieve and spoon.
- Twist and unscrew the caps.
- Play with sorter and frame inserts.
- Learn to cope with hooks, stickies, buttons, buttons.
- Play with clothespins.
- Engage with touch box.
In the second year of life, the baby’s speech is developing, as well as its rapid improvement. First, the crumb begins to understand speech, and then at a high pace replenishes the vocabulary and the stage of active speech begins. At the same time, enrichment of mimicry and gesture speech of the toddler occurs. In one year, one word of a baby can mean a whole phrase.
To stimulate the development of a one-year-old child’s speech, you can:
- Consider the pictures in the books, voicing the pictures and asking the child simple questions about the drawing, for example, “where's the dog?”.
- To read with a crumb of a counting man, and scraps, short fairy tales and rhymes, as well as sing songs.
- Perform articulation gymnastics.
- To do gymnastics and finger massage.
- To tell the baby about everything that the toddler is able to interest - about nature, animals, time of year, houses and much more.
Finger games will help the development of crumbs. Watch the video of Tatiana Lazareva, where she shows how you can play with a child of 1 year.
Sample weekly plan for the development of a one year old
So that the classes do not annoy the crumbs, do not repeat and include all the important directions of development, you should plan them in advance for at least one week. This will allow the mother to cover all areas of the development of karapuz and to prepare materials for educational games in advance.
We offer an example of a weekly schedule of developmental activities for a child aged 1-1.5 years:
Gymnastics with music
Gymnastics on video lesson
We assemble a puzzle
Find the whole part
We study fruits
Sort items by color
We are looking for a missing toy
Sensory and musical development
We listen to the sounds of musical instruments
We study smells
We study materials by touch
We listen to children's songs
We study tastes
Play with a touch box
We listen to classical music
Fine motor skills
Games with croup
Games with lacing
Games with clothespins
Reading a fairy tale
Story Picture Talk
Reviewing pictures and discussing them
Drawing with finger paints
Play with the designer
This is only an approximate plan that should be changed for each individual child. Be sure to include in your weekly schedule activities that your child likes. At the end of the week, do an analysis of what has been done, on the basis of which you can add any classes or shorten the list of games per day.
Toys from 1 to 2 years
Toys help crumbs to develop both physical and emotional sphere. With their help, the child learns the world, studies the environment, develops the imagination, becomes proactive and learns cause-effect relationships.
About what toys should be purchased for a baby for 1-2 years, see Anna Gapchenko in the video.
Among the toys of a child of 1-2 years should be:
- Sorter with several simple holes.
- Pyramid with 3-4 rings.
- Cups square and round.
- Boxes of different sizes.
- Toys for the street - a shovel, molds, a car with a body, a bucket.
- Toys that pull or push.
- Stuffed toys that the baby can put to bed, feed.
- Toys for playing with water.
- Plastic dishes.
- Toy phone.
- Toys that mimic household items.
- Musical toys.
- Cardboard or cloth books.
And a few more tips on toys for a one year old child:
- Do not immediately give your child a large number of items for the game. They quickly get bored with the toddler and cause fatigue. Part of the toys set aside in the far box or hide, and after a while, replace with missing toys those that are already slightly tired of the child.
- Visiting friends with children, pay attention to what toys most interested karapuz. This will give you the opportunity to replenish your stock of toys with items that a crumb will probably play with.
- Many children like to play with items from everyday life (covers from pots, sheets, a mirror and others). Do not prohibit, but make sure that such games are safe.
Games with cereals are one of the most beloved of the crumbs. How to conduct such classes, see the following video.
Hygienic procedures are an important element of the daily routine in the life of one-year-old toddler. In the morning, the child is washed and washed away. It is also important for the baby to clean the teeth and be sure to wash the hands before eating and after walking. At bedtime, the baby is traditionally bathed, combining this water treatment with fun games in the water.
By the year, all children have a certain daily routine, having changed several times in 12 months of life. Keeping him is important for the baby’s well-being. The main points of the day regimen of a child of 12 months are the organization of sleep and wakefulness, as well as nutrition.
Children 1 year old are awake more, but still sleep about 14-15 hours a day. An average night's rest lasts 10-11 hours, and during the daytime a 12-month-old baby sleeps twice. At the same time, the first daytime sleep usually lasts longer (2-2.5 hours), and the second - less long (1.5 hours). To one daytime sleep, children begin to move at about 18 months.
In day mode, a 12-month-old baby has active and quiet games, gymnastic exercises, reading books, walks, visiting visits and much more. In the first half of the day, active games are welcome, and in the evening they should be avoided. Gymnastics with a child must be performed an hour before meals.
Walking with one-year-old is advised 2 times a day, and in good weather at least one of the daytime dreams should be organized on a walk. It is recommended to go out with a baby on the street in the morning at 10-11 o'clock, and in the afternoon - at 16-17 o'clock. Duration of walks should be from 2 hours and more. It will be influenced by weather conditions, for example, on warm summer days, the baby may well spend 5-6 hours on a walk. If the frost is below -10, heavy rain or very windy, you should refrain from walking.
A 1 year old child still eats 5 times a day with pauses between meals for 3.5-4 hours. It is recommended to adhere to the diet, offering the baby food at about the same time, as well as avoiding long breaks. You can determine the total daily amount of food for a one-year-old baby by dividing the body mass of crumbs by 9. On average, children of this age eat 1000-1300 ml of food per day. Dividing such a volume by the number of feedings, you will receive an average portion volume of 200-260 ml.
PFeeding a baby on breastfeeding includes more and more feeding foods. The baby is applied to the chest mainly around dreams, during the day (for example, if it has fallen) and after eating (drink the prim)At night, active lamb feedings are maintained, which happen at 4-8 am.
Artificial babies can continue to be fed with the adapted formula, offering it in two feedings (first and before bedtime). If necessary, the mixture can already be abolished by offering a piece of cereal for breakfast and replacing the mixture before bedtime with a fermented milk drink.
Spices, greens, salt, some types of sweets (marshmallow, marshmallows) appear in the diet of a one-year-old child. It’s still early for such children to get familiar with fried foods, sausages and sausages, smoked meats, fatty meats, exotic fruits, mushrooms and chocolate.
It is best to feed toddler homemade fresh food, but you can offer the baby and ready-made baby food from proven manufacturers. Read more about this in the article about baby menu in 1 year.
The days with one-year-old peanut are full of discoveries and various interesting things. And so that the nervous system of the crumbs develops normally, the baby sleeps and eats well, and the mother has more time, it is important to organize such a daily routine that will suit all family members. It will be different depending on the temperament and biorhythms of the baby, but as an example, we will give you one version of the one-year-old's day regimen. A day with a child at the age of 1 year can be:
Awakening and first feeding, which, depending on the type of feeding, includes either breast milk or formula.
Daily hygiene procedures.
Period of wakefulness.
The second meal, usually including porridge (both dairy and milk-free), egg yolk, fruit puree, butter and fruit juice.
Walk, during which the child sleeps for 1-2 hours in the open air.
The third meal, which includes vegetable soup or mashed potatoes, a dish of meat or fish, bread, vegetable oil and drink.
Wakefulness period with different educational games.
A walk, part of which time (1-2 hours) takes the child's second sleep in the fresh air.
The fourth feeding, during which children are given cottage cheese and sour-milk drink, as well as cookies and fruit puree.
Wakefulness period with calm games.
The fifth meal, including, depending on feeding mother's milk or a mixture.
Preparing for night sleep and laying down.
Breast-fed babies may still be attached to the mother's breast several times, especially in the morning. Artificial children at this age usually sleep all night.
- Difficulty falling asleep. They are caused by high activity during the day, because a one-year-old child walks a lot. Relieve the falling asleep crumbs will help daily repetitive ritual to which the baby gets used. The purpose of its implementation is setting up a child for a night rest.
- Falls. Practically no kid can avoid them, since falling is an important part of learning how to walk independently. When the child fell, do not rush to him to run up, and give the opportunity to crumble up on their own. But be sure to help the baby if he is unable to get up, as well as if the child has hit and cries.
- The crisis of the first year. At the age of 1 year in children comes a difficult transitional moment, which is called the crisis of the first year. The karapuz becomes stubborn, disobedient, refuses to help, behaves contradictory, irritated, very tearful and touchy. This behavior indicates the formation of independence in the child, his own will and changes in attitude. It is important to remember that this is only a temporary change in the behavior of the crumbs.
Tips for parents
- The age of 1 year is considered by many mothers to be suitable for stopping breastfeeding, however, modern pediatricians note that even after a year breast milk remains a valuable diet for a growing baby, therefore the best age for stopping breastfeeding is 1.5-2.5 years (even better 2 -2.5 years). In this case, farewell to the mother's milk is easier for the toddler and for her mother's breast. If the mother is still determined to complete the feeding, it is recommended to do it gradually, replacing the milk from the breast with another food.
- If a baby in 1 year still does not speak a word, this is not yet a reason to consult a doctor, but it should cause more attention of parents. Evaluate if the crumb is enough with adults (if his passive dictionary replenishes), because if the child does not speak much, the development of his speech slows down. Also, for a more active development of speech, spend daily time on activities that will develop the motor skills of your baby’s hands.
How to celebrate the birthday with the benefit for the child, see the video M. L. Lazarev - an expert on musical development.