Child development at 2 years
A two-year-old child with many tasks already knows how to cope on his own. He is keenly interested in toys, easily involved in educational games and quickly absorbs information. How can you develop a child of this age and what classes to use for this?
- The child's coordination of movements improves markedly, so the baby is able to play with the designer, sorter, mosaic, puzzles, and similar toys.
- The logical thinking of the crumbs develops very quickly. The child is able to find a solution to various problems, find out how the object works or how it works.
- At the same time, a sense of space develops. The child tries to direct the ball with a kick, throw it into the ring. The overall coordination during the movement becomes better - the child can control the direction in which he moves, stops, and also the speed of movement.
- The independence and independence of a child of 2 years also increases. Now the baby will try to learn new things without your help.
What should a baby be able to do?
Most babies at the age of two years already know how:
- Run and climb stairs.
- Close and open the door.
- Step over the obstacles.
- Build towers and houses of cubes and constructor.
- Collect a pyramid of rings of different sizes.
- Catch the ball with both hands.
- Reproduce several actions in the story game.
- Eat with a spoon and also drink from a cup.
- Help mom around the house.
- Understand short stories about familiar events.
- Answer simple questions.
- Show parts of the body and face.
- Say about 100-300 words.
- Link 3-4 words per sentence.
- Call the items in the picture.
- Say goodbye and greet.
- Negotiate words in familiar rhymes and songs.
- Simulate animal sounds.
- Draw doodles on paper.
- Distinguish 3-4 colors.
Height and weight
Compared to indicators at 1.5 years By the age of two, children gain about 1300 grams and grow by about 5-6 cm. For girls, all indicators will usually be slightly less than for boys. In order to find out whether the baby is developing physically normally, we offer you a table with average values of the main indicators, as well as the limits of the norm for children of different sexes:
Average value in 2 years
The boundaries of the norm for boys 2years
The boundaries of the norm for girls 2 years
Should I worry about deviations from these physical norms, see the transfer of Dr. Komarovsky.
By the age of two, many babies have dentition completed. On average, babies of this age have 16–20 milk teeth.
Types of child development
This type of development helps the child to become more resilient and agile.A two year old baby needs daily physical activity.
Classes for the physical development of 2-year-old children are:
- Alternate fast running with slow.
- We run on the socks.
- Teach your child to jump on two legs in place.
- Ball games - we throw against the wall, we catch, we throw mom.
- To keep the balance we walk on the bench, the board on the floor.
- We copy the movements of animals after the show with mom - jump like a hare, walk like a bear, crawl like a caterpillar, stomp loudly like an elephant, wave our hands like a bird.
- Roll over the floor.
- We jump, like a frog, from a half-lodged position.
- We stretch up to the suspended objects.
- We run around the room, bending around obstacles (for example, pillows spread on the floor).
- We transfer not heavy things of the big size.
- We walk on an uneven surface.
- Walking along the drawn line is straight and winding.
- Crawling under the stretched rope.
- Together with other children, we run a train, play catch-up, arrange a round dance.
- Hang on the rings or horizontal bar.
- We master climbing on the sports wall.
- Jump over the "bumps" - laid out on the floor cushions.
- We climb through the tunnel.
- Jump on fitball.
- Playing a snail - crawling with a pillow on the back.
- We walk on hands.
This type of development of the child includes the study of the surrounding world, the properties of objects, the development of logical thinking, attention, memory, the study of the elements of mathematics. Classes for the cognitive development of a two-year-old child may be:
- The study of geometric shapes.
- Study the colors of objects.
- Find the named object in the room, on the street or in the picture.
- Find a pair by choosing from similar items.
- Find the same patterns on hats, mittens, saucers and similar images.
- The study of the concepts of "little" and "a lot."
- Determining the difference in the number of objects - the child learns to distinguish between 1 and 2.
- Sort items by color and size.
- Orientation in space with the study of the concept of "right", "below", "left", "above".
- Folding puzzles and split images in which there are 2-4 details.
- Comparison of pictures, as well as objects in the games "where is whose mother", "where is whose house", "who eats what" and the like.
- Guessing simple riddles - who eats weed and says “mu”, who is white and loves carrots.
- Folding dolls and glasses into each other.
- Build a tower of different-sized glasses or cubes (sort by size).
- Comparison of geometric figures with projections in the figure.
- Classification of cards with objects on a common basis, for example, products, animals, toys.
- Find a whole piece by piece, for example, pick up the house roof or tail of the animal.
- To find a figure, considering 2 signs - to find a small red among all circles, to find a large green among all squares.
- The study of the concepts of "low" and "high", "narrow" and "wide", "short" and "long".
- To pick up the subject of the shadow.
- Find the missing part of the picture.
- The game "what's missing" (hide one of the toys or pictures) or "what appeared" (add a picture or a toy).
- Hide and seek.
- We remember together what we did in the morning, yesterday, for a walk.
- Remember the plot of the picture.
- Thimble game with small toys.
- We study wild as well as domestic animals. We show the child their young, we tell the simple facts about their life, we call the parts of the body (hooves, horns, trunk).
- We study birds and insects.
- Acquaintance with the concept of day and night, as well as the division of the day into morning, lunch and evening.
- The study of natural phenomena, for example, we look at the rainbow, snow or rain.
- Acquaintance with 3-4 flowers that grow in your area.
- The study of common vegetables and berries, as well as fruits and mushrooms.
- Familiarity with the seasons.
- Talk on the topic of transport, professions, clinics, parts of the human body, shop, family, aquarium, sea, trains, materials, the city, electrical appliances and others.
- If the child will soon have to start going to kindergarten, it is important to pay attention to discussing the topic of the kindergarten.
- On a walk you can learn the rules of the road, vegetation, transport, sky and sun, natural materials (stones, leaves, branches), houses.
- Also during walks you can play with snow, with puddles, with sunbeams, with shadows and with sand.
This kind of child development is directed to his senses. During such sessions, the baby’s tactile sensitivity, hearing, sight, smell, and taste are affected.
Classes for the sensory development of 2-year-old karapuz are as follows:
- We feel items with different texture.
- The study of the concepts of "cold" and "warm."
- The study of tastes and smells. We find the same smell or taste.
- Feeling objects to determine hardness or softness, smoothness or roughness.
- We are looking for a couple of pieces of a certain material (cotton, fabric, cardboard, paper).
This kind of development is aimed at hearing the child, musical perception, recognition of musical instruments. It also includes dancing and singing.
In order to musically develop a child, such games and activities will do:
- Listening to children's songs.
- Listening to classic music.
- We distinguish different music - slow from fast, sad from cheerful, quiet from loud.
- We listen to a variety of sounds on a walk - the noise of cars, birds singing, rustling leaves and others.
- We determine the source of the sounds, for example, look for a bird in a tree.
- We play on different children's musical instruments.
- We listen to the sounds of different instruments.
- Listen to the singing mother.
- We dance with mom slowly and quickly, we slap and we stamp, we make “lanterns” with handles, we put a leg on the heel, and then on a toe, we dance.
Hold a lesson shown by M. L. Lazarev (an expert on musical development) with a 2-year-old child.
The development of the child's speech is aimed at increasing the vocabulary of the baby and stimulating the repetition of words for adults. It is also important to perform exercises for articulation.
Classes for speech development with a baby of 2 years may be:
- Replenish passive vocabulary crumbs, constantly communicating with the baby and telling about everything that happens in his life.
- Reading books (fairy tales, poems), as well as a discussion of reading.
- Ask your child questions about the image in the picture or what is happening around the child.
- To play with the little simple fairy tales.
- Listen and sing songs.
- Describe the items that the baby sees using adjectives.
- Use in speech prepositions (for, before, near, in), pronouns (here, there), adverbs (near, low, far, right, high, left, and others).
- We learn to blow on a candle, leaves, cotton, and also play with soap bubbles. You can blow both smoothly and sharply.
- We make faces to the mirror, showing the tongue, knocking with our teeth, opening our mouth wide.
- Learning to speak in a whisper and loud.
Spend lessons on articulation with a crumb to help the baby talk sounds more purely. One example is the “Cup and Saucer” exercise, which Tatiana Lazareva shows in the next video.
Fine motor skills
Its development is important for the development of speech, because in the human brain the zone responsible for the movement of the hands is in close proximity to the speech zone. Due to this close location, the lessons in which the fingers of the child are involved have a positive effect on the speech development of the child. Here are the lessons for fine motor skills that are suitable for a two year old child:
- Finger gymnastics.
- We are engaged in drawing, creating applications and modeling.
- Games with frame inserts, constructors, mosaics, lacing, sorting, pyramids.
- Pour the cereal from one container to another, using a spoon, funnel, hands, children's dishes.
- We pour water from one container into another using children's dishes, a watering can, a jug, a funnel.
- Games with stickers.
- Fastening and unfastening velcro on toys, clothes and shoes.
- Unzipping, buttons, buttons.
- We catch in the water (in a basin, bowl, glass) small floating objects with a sieve or spoon.
- We collect water with a pipette or enema, pour into another container.
- We collect water with a sponge.
- We crumple and tear paper.
- We create patterns using small pebbles, large beans, pasta, and chopsticks.
- Games with clothespins.
- We select the cover to the banks and bottles. Twist and unscrew them.
The development of motor skills contribute to the game with croup. Be sure to organize such classes. Garbage after games is easy to clean with a vacuum cleaner.
This type of development stimulates the creativity of the child and may include drawing, designing, modeling, creating applications and similar actions.
Creative activities with a peanut 2 years of age may be:
- We draw circles, lines (they can be long, short, horizontal, vertical), tracks.
- Dorisovyvaem threads to the balls, the stems of flowers, needles hedgehog, grass, rain and other simple elements.
- We draw patterns on a towel or rug.
- Choose a color for the picture.
- Draw a stick in the snow, semolina or sand.
- We leave paint prints on paper using a sponge and stamps.
- Learning to paint using a brush.
- Draw with your fingers.
- We try to roll out plasticine or dough, making sausages and balls.
- Break off part of the clay or dough to flatten these lumps in your fingers or palms.
- We unite the rolled sausage with the ends.
- We make plasticine lumps on cardboard, for example, to make decorations on the Christmas tree, chicken kernels.
- Learning to smear plasticine on paper.
- We leave prints on clay or dough using different objects.
- Cut the dough with a plastic knife and cut out cookie cutters.
- We make applications of torn or crumpled paper, as well as cotton wool.
- We perform the application of an object consisting of two or three parts, for example, a mushroom, a house.
- We make plot applications from two or three objects, for example, a house, a cloud and the sun.
- We use in games blocks Dyenesha, Lego, and Kuyzener's wands. We build from them a house, a bridge, a fence, a mountain.
Diversify the day with the “Little Leonardo” lesson, which is shown in the video with O. N. Teplyakova, an expert in intellectual development.
Two-year-old baby is important to communicate with peers. The crumb reaches for other children and copies their actions. In the social development of the baby, great importance is also attached to the acquisition of everyday skills. Classes for the social development of a 2-year-old child will be:
- Pay attention to other kids karapuz, trying to arouse sympathy for them.
- Meeting other children while walking, offering to play together. Since at this age the children do not know how to interact in the game, it is very important that an adult participate in a joint game. It is especially important to teach the baby to play with other babies, if the child soon begins to attend kindergarten.
- Teach your child to change toys.
- We explain when it is necessary to pity other people, for example, if a boy has fallen.
- Teach your child to wash their hands with soap and towels.
- We remove together with the baby from the table after eating.
- Collect spilled liquid with a sponge.
- We teach the baby to remove their clothes themselves, and also to put them on.
- Water the flowers with the baby.
- Together we remove the toys, putting them in place.
At the age of two years, the child’s reluctance to share toys is a frequent problem. How to understand the baby and what to do in this case, see the video of Larisa Sviridova.
If you see a child’s aggression towards other children, watch the video of Lara’s mom (Larisa Sviridova), where she tells you how to act in this case.
Many parents have anxiety about the fact that the child is often taken toys, but he does not defend them. Should I worry about this, see the next video of Larisa Sviridova.
On the other hand, there are children who in no case want to share their toys. In the next video of Larisa Sviridova, you will see how to properly talk with your child and teach him to share.
A hot topic for many families - hysterics child when not receiving the desired. How to keep in this situation, parents, see the fragment of the transfer of Komarovsky.
Sample exercise program for the week
Drawing up a weekly developmental plan for the baby helps to solve several problems at once:
- Do not overload the child in general.
- Do not repeat the same classes.
- Do not miss any kind of development.
- Do not worry that the child develops a little and you are missing something.
We offer an example of a weekly schedule of classes for the development of a two-year-old child:
Running with obstacles
Walking on a drawn wavy line
Jumping over the "bumps"
We assemble a puzzle
Find the whole part
Pick up the subject shadow
Sort items by color
We study the seasons
We are looking for a missing toy
Feel cold and warm objects
We study materials by touch
We study the taste
Touch smooth and rough objects
Fine motor skills
Playing with croup
On the walk create patterns of small pebbles
Game with clothespins
Singing with mom
We listen to the sounds of musical instruments
We listen to classical music
We listen to children's songs
We read a fairy tale
We read poems
Make faces in front of the mirror
Talk pictures in the book
Playing a fairy tale
Blow out the candles
Read together with the discussion of reading
Torn Paper Applique
Communication with other kids
We go to visit
Walk in the sandbox
This is only a rough development plan for a child aged 2-2.5 years. To draw up your own plan, it is important to take into account the skills of the toddler, his temperament, and the interests of the child, and your goals.
The plan should note the mandatory classes, for example, a visit to a massage therapist, visiting clubs, swimming in the pool. Identify the most important areas of development for your child and schedule classes for them 5-7 times a week. Be sure to leave in the plan a place for improvisation or independent baby games. After 1-2 weeks you will be able to analyze the implementation of the plan, after which you will remove or replace some classes.
During classes you may notice the aggression of the child. Often it manifests itself in cases where parents refuse to fulfill the wishes of the child. How to behave in the event that the child is also bites? See this in the video of Larisa Sviridova.
- You can not force the child to engage, if he is against the game. Your perseverance can aggravate the situation and cause a sharp rejection of educational games.
- Remember that a child’s concentration at play at 2 years of age lasts only a few minutes, so the activity should not be long.
- Be sure to praise the child if something happened to him. This will be an incentive for further success of the crumbs.
- You can not blame the child if he refuses to engage in, as well as in cases where something did not work out.
- Try to make educational games interesting for babies. They should bring joy to the kid, but not cause boredom.
Give your child the opportunity to perform the task on their own, even if it is very long. A crumb cannot learn anything while you are more active in the game than the child himself.
Care and mode
For the development of a two-year-old child, the health of the crumbs is of considerable importance, which is supported by the correct day regimen and care:
- It is important to ensure that the child has enough rest. Kids of this age sleep around 12-13 hours a day. Two-year-olds have one daytime sleep, which lasts 2-2.5 hours.
- The morning of the baby should begin with washing and brushing your teeth, as well as brushing. It is also important to teach the child to hygiene, recalling that after a walk and before a meal, you should wash your hands.
- After a day's sleep, procedures are often carried out for hardening, for example, rubbing or drenching the legs.
- Many children by the 2nd anniversary have already mastered the pot and use it for its intended purpose. To be asked for a potty, a child utters words or makes a sign. Some kids go to the pot and take off their pants.
- Walking with a child of two years is advised 1-2 times a day, as the baby really needs fresh air. Dressing the baby should be due to the weather to prevent overheating, but also not to allow the child to freeze.
- Eating a 2-year-old karapuz provides 4 meals with intervals of 3-4 hours between them. The nutritional value of the diet of a child of this age should correspond to 1400-1500 kcal.
On how to properly behave with a naughty child, see the telecast of Dr. Komarovsky.