Child development at 3 years
Three-year-old children are actively developing both physically and emotionally and mentally. They have already learned a lot when compared with skills. in a year or two. Let's analyze what a 3-year-old child can do, why a development crisis occurs at this age and how to cope with it, as well as with what activities to develop a three-year-old child.
- Motor development of the child improved. The kid at the age of 3 years is good at managing his own body. He walks evenly, without unnecessary movements, can change the pace of walking and is able to learn how to ride a bike.
- The efficiency of the nervous system of a three-year-old child becomes greater. The child is awake for a longer time and is ready to absorb new information. He is already more patient and can do any one thing longer than 2 years (up to 20-25 minutes).
- Fine motor skills are also improved, allowing the baby to master buttoning, drawing with pencils, using cutlery and other everyday skills.
- The vocabulary of a 3-year-old kid already includes more than 1000 words. The child uses in conversation almost all parts of speech, although sometimes incorrectly. The pronunciation of sounds is improving, although children at the age of 3 may not yet pronounce many sounds. Three-year-olds constantly pronounce their actions, giving the impression that they are not silent at all. Also, a characteristic feature of the speech of children of this age is the presence of numerous questions.
- The main activity of a child of three years is the game. Now the kid loves role-playing the most. In the scenes played by the child there is a plot, since the crumbs develop abstract thinking and imagination.
Many kids at this age at the first opportunity want to play other people's toys, while not paying attention to their own. Is this normal and how to react to this situation, see in the video of Larisa Sviridova (mother of Lara).
What should a baby be able to do?
Most children at the age of three already know how:
- Quickly run, jump, step over obstacles.
- Speak up to 1500 words and make complex sentences from them.
- Long listen to fairy tales.
- Ask a lot of questions.
- Perform a task without distraction, at least 5 minutes.
- Tell a familiar fairy tale on the picture.
- To learn poems and songs.
- Speak your name and surname, know your age (pointing at fingers) and gender.
- Show parts of the body and know their purpose.
- Call yourself "I."
- Greet, say goodbye and say "thank you."
- Perform simultaneously 2 actions, for example, clap and stomp.
- Play with other children, sharing toys.
- Ride a 3-wheeled bike, sledging, and on a swing.
- Count to three.
- Orient in 7 colors (including white and black) and in geometric shapes.
- Collect toys from 4-6 parts.
- Understand the difference in the size of objects, their shape and weight.
- Draw by design.
- Fantasize in role-playing games and follow the rules in mobile.
- Dress yourself, and also undress and fold your own clothes.
- Button up the buttons and tie the laces.
- Use a handkerchief.
- Carefully eat (not only with a spoon, but also a fork) and use a napkin.
What is a “three-year crisis”?
The behavior of most children at 3 years of age is strikingly changing, causing misunderstanding and panic in parents. Mom begins to worry that she had missed something in the upbringing, but in fact it is absolutely normal changes for children of this age.
Child development goes through several crises, among which the three-year-old is the most turbulent and difficult for parents. It gradually increases from the age of 2 years. At its peak, such a crisis manifests itself stormy. by tantrums and the conflict behavior of the child, but soon passes, becoming a real school of life for the karapuz.
The main features of the “3 years crisis” are:
- Negativism of the child. The kid on all offers from adults answers “no”.
- Stubbornness. The child insists on their own opinions and suggestions.
- Refusal of actions that you used to do without any problems, for example, the child does not want to eat, wash or brush his teeth.
- The desire to do everything yourself, even if you can not. The child is in no hurry to ask for help.
- Conflict behavior. The child is rebelling and protesting against virtually everything that parents say.
- Depreciation. Formerly, a quiet, quiet baby can defiantly start throwing and breaking toys, spoiling things, swearing.
- Jealousy. It is especially pronounced when there are other children in the family, but it can also be directed at the father.
The appearance of such changes in the behavior of a child of three years is associated with the awareness of the crumbs that he is already quite adult to influence circumstances and other people, and is also able to make decisions. The child considers himself big and wants to be respected. He rebels against the command of the parents, so he becomes stubborn, screaming, hysteria. However, contradictory behavior is transferred by the child no less difficult than his parents. The kid can not understand what is happening to him, and also can not control their own emotions.
The strongest manifestation of the three-year crisis is hysteria. At an earlier age, they could occasionally occur due to overwork, and the main action of the parents was to calm the baby. At the age of 3, tantrums become a way of manipulation. That is why they appear in places where there are spectators, for example, on the street or in a store.
How to respond to the tantrums of the child and whether to fulfill its requirements, see the transfer of E. Komarovsky.
To survive such a crisis period without major difficulties, parents can advise the following:
- Change the strategy of communication with the baby. Recognize that the child has grown and can be independent. Stop doing for the baby what he can handle on his own.
- Always offer a choice or its illusion. For example, if you have to walk, ask the crumb how you will go down - on the elevator or up the stairs, and if lunch is coming soon, ask from which plate the child will eat - from red or green.
- Do not force the child to do anything, but offer to help you. For example, you are going to cross the street. Do not tell your child that it is dangerous and you definitely need to hold an adult’s hand, but offer to take you across the road, as you are afraid of cars.
- Give the child for any action more time to not rush.
- If the child puts an ultimatum, answer "no" and try to keep calm. Do not pay attention to the cries, falling to the floor, the views of passers-by.If you go on about this behavior again and again.
- If a child falls on the roadway or in a puddle, lift it, take it to a safe place and leave to shout there.
- Do not criticize or scold the child after a tantrum. It is better to teach the crumbs to express their emotions in words.
If you have children growing up with a small difference in age, watch the following video of Larisa Sviridova (mother of Lara). Learn how to respond to the aggression of the older child towards the younger one.
Height and weight
If you compare with the figures of 2.5 years, the child adds about 1000-1200 g to his three-year anniversary and grows by 4-5 cm. The physical development indicators of girls are usually slightly lower than boys. For orientation, whether the rate of physical development of your three-year-old child is normal, we have collected in the table the average values of the main parameters, as well as the boundary indicators of the norm for each sex:
3 years average
Borders of the norm for boys 3 years
Borders of the norm for girls 3 years
Most parents are not happy with the weight of their child. Should I be worried because of a deviation from the norm, see the telecast of E. Komarovsky.
Types of child development
This kind of development is aimed at increasing the child’s endurance, developing dexterity and coordination of movements. Occupations affecting physical development should be daily for a three-year-old child and may include such actions:
- Charging to music, poetry or video lesson.
- Stepping over obstacles (lay the bars on the floor).
- Walking on an inclined board.
- Jumping over the line drawn on the floor.
- Walking on the rope spread out on the floor.
- Jumping forward on two legs.
- Jumping off small heights.
- Ball games - throwing each other, throwing up, and then catching, hitting with your foot, getting into the box, running around with a rolling ball, rolling between the legs of the chair.
- Outdoor games with simple rules.
- Overcoming the obstacle course.
- Fitness with mom.
- Exercises on the sports wall (rope, rings, ladder, crossbar).
- Bicycle riding.
This type of development helps to explore the crumbs of the world and different properties of objects. Classes with the purpose of cognitive will develop attention, logic, memory at the karapuz. In the form of a game, the crumb studies the first mathematical concepts, learns more about the world in which he lives. Classes at the age of three may be:
- We are looking for colors by name and by sample.
- We consistently collect nesting dolls and molds of different sizes.
- We select flat geometric shapes on the model.
- We select volumetric geometric shapes to the holes and study their names.
- We collect a pyramid of 8-10 rings of different colors and sizes, guided by a pattern or pattern.
- We study the differences between the concepts of small-medium-large.
- We put the picture of 2 parts.
- We play with mosaic and lotto.
- We remember the place where the toy was located, which was removed by an adult.
- We are looking for a whole picture of its details.
- We study the concept of right-left.
- We generalize objects by some property, for example, floating, flying.
- We study natural phenomena, plant and animal life, labor actions with a child.
- We find an extra item in the group.
- Choose from the group of objects opposite.
- We study the numbers.
- We are looking for the shadow of the picture.
- We select the patch.
- Add the missing items.
Parents can begin in the form of a game to acquaint the child with mathematical concepts. Conduct the following lesson on the “Tsvetonik” method, which is shown by M. L. Lazarev (an expert on musical development) in the next video.
At the age of three, the baby will be interested in meeting the days of the week. Classes spend in a playful way and in a good mood.
This development involves the child's sense organs — touch, taste, smell, sight, hearing. During occupations by sensorics, the crumb improves tactile sensitivity, learns to recognize objects by smell and taste. Such classes at the age of three may include:
- Determination of the texture of objects.
- Definition of geometric shapes by touch.
- Guessing animals by the sounds they make.
- Games with touch pouches and boxes.
- Guessing items by smell.
- Guessing food to taste.
This type of development of a three-year-old baby not only affects the child's hearing, but also instills in him a sense of rhythm and musical taste.
You can develop your baby with the help of such activities:
- Playing a musical instrument.
- Listening to music with a different rhythm.
- Guessing the sounds of everyday objects.
- Guessing songs.
- Music background.
M.Lazarev, an expert on musical development, shows how to conduct the “Music Festival” theatrical presentation according to the “Tsvetonik” method. The child will get acquainted with musical instruments and musical intervals.
For a child of 3 years is very important to constantly expand the vocabulary, so you should communicate more with the tot. Also, speech development is affected by articulation classes. With a baby of this age, speech development can be done as follows:
- To learn songs and poems.
- Discuss plot pictures.
- To tell a fairy tale from pictures.
- Discuss read.
- Play a fairy tale that reads an adult, as well as audio recordings.
- Guess the riddle for the kid, in which the last word of the quatrain is the answer.
- Talk with your baby about how the day went.
- To discuss different situations on the topic “what if?”.
- Perform articulation gymnastics.
- Learn the vowels.
Fine motor skills
It is extremely important to develop motor skills in order to stimulate the development of the speech of the toddler, since the brain areas responsible for speech and hand movement are very close. If, during the lessons, the baby will use the fingers more, you will simultaneously stimulate the speech zone. Suitable fine motor skills for a 3 year old toddler are:
- Finger gymnastics.
- Games with sand and cereals.
- Button fastening, eyelets, different fasteners, buttons.
- Stringing multicolored beads on the cord, including alternating colors and shapes of beads.
- Games with dolls, lacing, mosaic, liners, clothespins.
- Putting patterns from pasta, shells or pebbles.
- Water games.
The classes that will stimulate the creativity of the child include various types of drawing and appliqués, games with designers, modeling and the like. With a baby of three years old you can do this:
- Finishing details for drawings, for example, leaves for a branch or stems for flowers.
- Draw lines, rectangles, ovals and circles.
- Paint the picture.
- Draw according to your design and tell what draws.
- Roll plasticine or dough in your palms and sculpt simple shapes (sausages, balls, bagels).
- To make simple applications using paper, natural materials, pieces of fabric.
- Build bridges, fences, houses, using speech instructions, your imagination, sample or drawing.
- Cut baby scissors.
- Decorate cakes or sandwiches with your mom.
- Stage a fairy tale.
- Play with a puppet theater.
For the creative development of the child, conduct a lesson according to the “Little Leonardo” method, which shows Teplyakova O. N. - an expert on intellectual development.
A three-year-old child reaches out to peers and communicates a lot with other children.Many toddlers of this age already attend kindergarten, so their social development is progressing at the time of communication with the children in the group. If the three-year-old does not yet go to the garden, it is important for the parents to pay additional attention to the social development of the children. In addition, this type of development includes the acquisition of skills that children will need in everyday life.
Classes aimed at the social development of the crumbs will be as follows:
- Games with other kids using alternate items.
- Learning the words of politeness.
- Folding clothes before bedtime.
- Training in tying shoelaces and buttoning.
- Learning the rules of behavior at the table.
- Feasible help around the house.
Many parents face the difficulties of parting with the child, accompanied by tears and tantrums crumbs. Is this normal and should we continue to drive the baby to kindergarten, see Larisa Sviridova’s video.
Sample exercise program for the week
Having drawn up a weekly lesson plan for the development of a three-year-old child, you can evenly distribute classes by day, without losing anything, but not overloading the toddler. For each child, such a lesson plan will be his. Its compilation should be based on the interests of the baby and mother, as well as the presence of certain skills in the toddler. The plan includes visiting sports and developmental activities, massage and other mandatory actions.
When drawing up a plan for the first time it is better to focus on the minimum list of classes. After one or two weeks, you will be able to analyze how the child copes, whether you need to add any classes, what your child likes and what is more difficult.
We offer such an approximate weekly schedule of developmental activities for a 3-year-old child:
Charging a video lesson
Charging to music
We study birds
Looking for a whole part
The study of natural phenomena
Touch Bag Games
We study tastes
We study smells
Guessing items by touch
Fine motor skills
Game with clothespins
Play with sand
Play with beads
Play with water
Playing with croup
Learning musical instruments
Reading a fairy tale
We tell the tale by the picture
Discussing the plot pictures
Games with the designer
We study etiquette
Learning the words of courtesy
Care and mode
In the development of 3-year-old children, attention should be paid to maintaining the health of babies, therefore the importance of day regimen and care of the peanut cannot be doubted:
- The baby should have enough rest. The approximate duration of sleep at 3 years of age is 12-13 hours per day. Many children may refuse to sleep during the day, but pediatricians say that preschoolers need rest during the day, so parents should try to lay down the child for a day or two for 2 hours.
- Morning three years should begin with hygienic procedures. The child must wash himself, brush his teeth and comb his hair. Parents should constantly remind the kid about washing hands before eating and after returning from a walk, as well as after using the toilet.
- Many parents continue to harden their children, carry out procedures in the period after the daytime sleep. Such procedures include sunbathing, walking in the fresh air, wiping wet with a towel, drenching the legs or the whole body, a douche, bathing in ponds.
- With a three-year-old child, it is advised to walk 1-2 times a day, dressing a toddler for the weather.
- In the diet of a child of this age there are 4 meals, between which 3-4 hours pass. The nutritional value of the daily ration of three-year-old children is 1500-1800 kcal.
And once again about the most important thing: what happens to a child at 3 years old and why it is important to behave properly in this difficult period, see the video of the child psychologist Yulia Milovanovoy on the Open Channel.
- At the age of three, it is important to ensure that the child has toys that will support the child's physical activity (ball, bicycle, pins, and the like). Also for games of a three-year-old karapuz we need constructors and pyramids, lotto and cubes, books and posters, sets for creativity and toys for role-playing games (dolls, animals, dishes, food, etc.)
- If the child is to begin attending kindergarten, discuss with the baby changes in his life. A good idea would be to attend developmental activities, so that the baby gets accustomed to the children's team.
- Remember that three-year-old children are very sensitive to criticism, so if you want to criticize the baby, do it gently, but rather offer to correct mistakes together.
- It is not necessary to buy expensive toys for development, you can also use available materials for classes.
About which speech therapy games worth playing in 3 yearsread in another article.