How to teach a child to count examples within 20?


Numbers surround us everywhere. Perhaps that is why children remember them so easily, while not delving into the meaning and value. For a first grader the score is one of the fundamental principles of training. It is better to acquaint the child with the score before school so that it is easier to flow into the educational process and not experience much stress.

It is important to start learning from an early age. In two years, the baby's brain is already capable of memorizing the account. If you let everything go to chance, there is a risk that mathematical thinking will appear only in 10 years.

How to interest?

It is difficult to teach a child to count, especially if he does not feel sympathy for such a complex subject as mathematics.

However, at first, interest in the account can be awakened in the simplest ways:

  • We consider everything that we see - steps, trees, steps, flowers, people. Start by yourself, and the child will catch the initiative, remembering the figures.
  • Compare - offer the child a sweet way - candy. Take a different number of them and offer to compare. First, it will be the words "more", "less", and then you can move on to numbers and introduce the concept of "how much". You can use large beads, toys from Kinder surprise, cars and similar items.
  • Find the number - Offer the child a book or journal with numbers. Name the number and play detectives - look for it on the pages and pictures.
  • Launch rocket - exercise helps to teach the child the countdown from 10 to 1.

It is important to take into account the mood of the child and not be intrusive. Then look at what method of counting is interesting for a child. Do not like sticks - count candies, apples, favorite toys.

Another important rule - do not complicate. No need to give complex tasks at once. However, too simple examples, memorized by child by heart, can quickly get bored and discourage new knowledge.

The main thing is repetition. Do not pay attention that someone Petya or Masha is considered better and faster. Everything is individual, and everyone needs to find their own approach.

Interrupt class if your child is tired. In general, the class time should not exceed 10 minutes at a time. During the day, you can start the account several times. It is best to do this when a small student takes the initiative. Learn by playing. The lesson should not turn into a professorial lecture that will be uninteresting to the kid.

Account to 20

If up to 10 it is easy to learn to count, since a unit account is present in the ordinary, then it is more difficult to count within 20.

In order for the child to remember the numbers well after 10, you will need 20 identical objects - sticks, cubes, small toys. Naturally, first of all, it is necessary that the kid has a score of up to ten

We post two rows of ten items each. It is necessary to explain to the child that the numbers after 10 are similar. Just in front of each of them is a unit, which means a dozen. That is, as many rows of cubes, as many as tens, then in the figure of twenty, there are two cubes two times ten. This will help the study of further figures.

Further, we explain that to the usual one, two, three, and so on numbers, you need to add the ending - “eleven”. To make it easier, in the second row, we change the number of cubes and ask the baby to name the resulting figure.

For clarity, the cubes can be numbered, so that the child also has a clear image of the number. However, in calculations, do not confuse the numbers, otherwise the sequence and the arithmetic result will introduce the child to a dead end. For calculations, remove the numbering from the cubes.

Solution examples

Quickly learn how to add and subtract will be difficult. The main thing here is repetition. The more often the child will be engaged, the faster he will learn to count in his mind.

To begin with, let your child "swing" and start solving easy puzzles to 10. Then you can proceed to the second ten.

Re-build sticks or cubes in two rows of ten. For better memorization, pronounce the names of the numbers of the second ten when laying out. For example, ten plus one — eleven, ten plus two — twelve, and so on. Set an example for your baby, write them on a piece of paper so that the child can see the image.

Explain that only the second ten need to be changed if it is about adding from ten. Lay out 10 cubes and ask the baby to add five and voice the result. When you learn to add, go to subtraction. Explain that now you need to remove the extra cubes.

At first, try not to confuse dozens and not to collect cubes in one pile. It is important to remember dozens and units and build ranks and results of ten. If the score does not go through the tens, and the child can count to twenty, then you can ignore the series. For example, 8 + 8 can be added without using decimal rows.

Calculation using dozens

There is another way of counting, where the child learns to count using dozens, where it is important to keep the rows, so that it is clear how many dozens of numbers of dozens belong to.

That is, in the example of 8 + 8, we will navigate in dozens. You can move 8 cubes a little further. Then the child must figure out how many cubes are left in the first ten for the second eight - these are two, and how many you need to add from the second ten - these are six. This method will force the child to train the memory and the score to ten in the mind. Similarly with subtraction. From the number we remove the ten, and then we decompose it in the second ten. That is, in example 14-7, we make 14 of ten and four. Next, we explain to the child that there are 4 ones from the number 7, so in order to get 7, you need to take another 3 cubes out of a dozen, since 3 + 4 = 7. Next comes the counting of the remaining cubes.

To make the child understand how this action looks in digital form, write him examples on the sheet. In the first case it will be 8+ (2 + 6) = 16, and in the second 14- (4 + 3) = 7.

At first, this method will be difficult for the child. But when the account base is formed, he will quickly master such an interesting way and it will be easy to count in his mind without using any counting materials.

Account training techniques

Each develops in its own way, so the training methods may require more. And it is even better to alternate them, so that the child has different ideas about the bill, and school innovations did not frighten him. However, obsession can be confusing, so the gap between the techniques should be decent. Once the child masters one, and will feel like a fish in water, you can proceed to another:

  • Little fingers. The most famous and practical technique. Busting fingers helps and visual memory, and fine motor skills. For the score of the second dozen, visual images will also develop during considerations of how many fingers you need to add and what the result will be. This method is suitable for dozens of accounts.
  • Toys for the account. We learn to add and subtract large numbers on dice, sticks, toys. We write examples in a notebook and invite the child to enter the answers. Further, the kid can write an example dictation from an adult. Perfectly help the game of dominoes, where on one side of the knuckle is a figure, and on the other - objects. Playing with them, the child will be able to compare and mentally correlate the number of things and the number.
  • Books and cards for learning. Training for children who are already counting. Perfectly strengthens skills and contributes to better memorization and visualization of the account. Many different magazines with a phased solution of examples, counting the number of things and comparing will allow to perform arithmetic operations in a game form. Moreover, you can learn to score independently, without the help of an adult.

The younger the child, the easier it is to teach him to count. Because then it happens in the form of a game and is not perceived as a task. The main thing in this process is consistency and clarity. The older the child, the more different counting methods you can use.

In this case, your child will be ready to learn and it will be easy to cope with tasks in mathematics lessons at school.

To learn how to teach a child to count within 20, see the following video.

Information provided for reference purposes. Do not self-medicate. At the first symptoms of the disease, consult a doctor.