The development of memory in children of preschool age
Memory is one of the necessary mental processes, without which the intellectual development of the child is impossible. Enough time must be given to its development at preschool age. It is with its help that the baby will be able to receive new knowledge, knowing the world or studying at school, acquire the knowledge and skills he needs. In memory development classes, you will teach children how to memorize, save and reproduce information using simple exercises and games.
For preschool children, mechanical memorization of information is characteristic, without reflection. The task of adults is to teach the child to do this consciously, logically interpreting new knowledge. Involuntary memorization and reproduction of information should gradually pass to the conscious.
In the first year of a baby’s life, motor memory develops, which is expressed in conditioned reflexes.
A crumb can memorize movements and actions. This is especially good if they are accompanied by emotions (or if he understands the result of these actions). The kid learns to sit, stand, crawl, take any objects with his hands and much more.
The figurative memory develops up to two years. The karapuz recognizes relatives and friends, smells, tastes, voices. At this age, there is an active development of the nervous system of the baby, increasing amounts of information. At the age of 3 years, logical thinking is actively developing, vocabulary is expanding. You can already talk about the emergence of verbal-logical memory.
Up to about 4 years, mechanical memory has been developed. It is characterized by remembering that with which the child performs any actions. If parents want a child at this age to better remember some information, you need to captivate and interest him. The result in this case will be much better.
From the age of 5 we can already speak about the development of arbitrary memory. It is during this age period that the child can already use special techniques to better memorize information.
Types of memory
Depending on how long the information is stored, on the memorized object, on the degree of volitional regulation, the memory is classified differently.
The terms of memorization are the following types:
- Short-term - in this case, the information is remembered with ease, but then forgotten.
- Long-term - the material can be reproduced even after a long time.
Object memorization emit:
- Visual - when the picture is remembered (persons, the situation around and so on).
- Hearing - there is a memorization of what was heard.
- Motor (motor). It is characterized by memorizing various movements - depending on the circumstances: dance, crawling of the baby, working hands with cutlery.
- Emotional. If a child has his arm burned with an iron, then he will no longer approach him, these emotions are much better than any prohibitions of parents will help to learn the rule.
- Taste - memorization of tastes.
- Olfactory - memory for different smells.
- Tactile (tactile) - the crumb remembers feelings when touching various objects.
All these types of memory can be combined into one - figurative memory.
Verbal-logical - the ability to memorize words, appears in parallel with the development of speech.
The methods of learning are distinguished:
- Mechanical - with this view, the meaning of the memorized material is lost, only something concrete is learned. If these words are the order in which they were proposed. If these are actions, then it is in the order in which they were repeated. This kind of memory is very much in demand when learning foreign words, their recording and pronunciation, learning a dance.
- Logical - is notable for memorizing the meaning of the memorized. The material that needs to be remembered is subjected to careful analysis, divided into semantic parts. The main idea of each of them and the relationship between them is determined. With the help of all these techniques, the most important thing in the text is highlighted and remembered, its essence.
The degree of volitional regulation emit:
- arbitrary memory - to memorize the necessary material you need to make an effort;
- involuntary - no effort is required, everything is remembered by itself.
Recommended games and exercises
There are several particularly effective, but simple exercises.
5-6 items are laid out on the table in front of the baby, and he is offered time to memorize them. After that, the crumb must turn away from the table, and the presenter at this time swaps a pair of toys or clears 1-2. The task of the child in the game is to restore the correct sequence or tell about what disappeared from the table. Exactly the same game can be played with subject pictures.
“Remember what happened”
Exercise copes with the training of long-term memory. Ask your child to remember and share what happened yesterday. Let him try to tell you everything in as much detail as possible.
You can play this game when you are in a queue, on the way to the store, at any time - if there is a need to take a child with something so that it behaves quietly. Ask him to name the 5 names of the boys, then the five names of the girls, then the game continues in the same order. At first, the baby will call the names of the people closest to him, then friends and acquaintances, but after that he will begin to remember the names he has ever heard.
Learning them helps not only to develop the speech of a preschooler, but also to train memory. Pay attention to the fact that this should be “by the way” - in the game, with free minutes. You can offer your child to arrange a competition, who better cope with the task. In this case, the winner must necessarily get praise or some insignificant prize. Ask the crumb to repeat the patter after you, and the next day let him remember it.
There are two variants of the game.
- Let the child tell you any letter of the alphabet. Now start taking turns calling the words to this letter.
- Ask the baby to name a word.. Then you need to name the word that begins with the last letter of the previous one. The game is very similar to the well-known game "Cities".
"Road to the house"
When you walk far enough away from your house while walking with a baby, you can offer him this exercise - let him show you the way home. Naturally, you strictly control this process. On the way, pay attention to the little things that can be very useful when looking for a road: shop signs, unusual trees, visible houses. Then next time he will try to do everything on his own.
Out on the street with the baby, you can gather up different leaves and flowers, pronouncing at the same time the name of each plant. At home, fold these leaves into an album and dry. After a while, you can examine them and ask the child to remember what these plants were called. Later you can use them in handicrafts.
"Name a couple"
This exercise helps in training associative (semantic) memory.Tell your child a couple of words that are related by meaning: heat and summer, soup and lunch. Start with 5-6 pairs. Speak them clearly. Then ask the crumb to repeat the second word in the pair, calling him the first. Gradually, the task can be complicated by offering more pairs.
"Repeat after me"
Name the preschooler 10 words that are not related by meaning. And now let him try to remember the words that you spoke. This exercise perfectly trains the auditory memory.
Teach your child to retell the work he read, the cartoon he viewed, the story he heard. Before going to bed ask to tell you about interesting events of today. This exercise is a good training for the development of memory.
"Remember and draw"
Give your baby 1 minute to view the picture. He should try to remember her. After this, the picture closes and the child is invited to draw it, reproducing all the details as accurately as possible.
The way your memory develops is affected by many factors. Among them - food, daily routine, lifestyle of your offspring, physical activity, time spent with their parents. Useful recommendations:
- Try to limit the use of sweet and flour. Replace it with healthy foods: various types of nuts, cereals, hard cheese, various greens, seeds. It is very useful to eat fatty fish, vegetables, fruits and berries, liver, white meat.
- Observe the daily regimen.
- The child should spend at least 2-3 hours in the fresh air., it is necessary for the enrichment of brain cells with oxygen.
- Be sure to put the baby to sleep on time, even if he does not want. By doing this every day at the same time, you teach the child, and gradually all the problems with laying will disappear. Daytime sleep is also desirable.
- Ensure that the child is physically active. These can be outdoor games with friends, playing sports, dancing, cycling, skating or skiing. Try to limit the time they spend playing computer games or watching TV.
The ability of a baby to memorize is very dependent on how much time his parents devote to him. Play with him in educational games, read books, learn poems, tell him as much as possible new and interesting, draw and sing songs. All this will contribute to the development of memory.
Game methods for the development of the child's memory can be viewed in this video.